New Phytologist, 201607 Sep 2016 Reconciling the evolutionary origin of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)
El Baidouri, M. ; Murat, F. ; VeyssiÃ¨re, M. ; Molinier, M. ; Flores, R.-G. ; Burlot, L. ; Alaux, M. ; Quesneville, H. ; Pont, C. ; Salse, J.
The origin of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum; AABBDD) has been a subject of controversy and of intense debate in the scientific community over the last few decades. In 2015, three articles published in New Phytologist discussed the origin of hexaploid bread wheat (AABBDD) from the diploid progenitors Triticum urartu (AA), a relative of Aegilops speltoides (BB) and Triticum tauschii (DD). Access to new genomic resources since 2013 has offered the opportunity to gain novel insights into the paleohistory of modern bread wheat, allowing characterization of its origin from its diploid progenitors at unprecedented resolution. We propose a reconciled evolutionary scenario for the modern bread wheat genome based on the complementary investigation of transposable element and mutation dynamics between diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. In this scenario, the structural asymmetry observed between the A, B and D subgenomes in hexaploid bread wheat derives from the cumulative effect of diploid progenitor divergence, the hybrid origin of the D subgenome, and subgenome partitioning following the polyploidization events.